In a new study, researchers analyzed data from a German health database from over 100,000 patients with heart failure and the same number of people without this condition for ten years to establish cancer incidence in both groups over time. The study found a correlation between heart failure and cancer incidence. 25.7 percent of patients with heart failure developed some form of cancer, compared with 16.2 percent of those who did not have heart failure. The study also provided statistics on cancer types, demonstrating such correlation on a more granular level. Although this type of retrospective research can establish correlation but not causation, it would be prudent for patients with heart failure to get regular cancer screening as a preventive measure. The study was published in ESC Heart Failure.
Another team of researchers from Germany conducted a preclinical study on genetic processes underlying pancreatic and biliary tract cancer development. They established that tissue-specific (in this case, bile duct and pancreas epithelium) genetic interplay with an oncogene plays the causative role in the development of different types of cancers. This will help understand different tissue-specific responses to cancer therapy, which is important in the practice of precision medicine. The study was published in Cancer Discovery.
Researchers from the Institute for Systems Biology (ISB) and the University of California, Riverside developed a method of identifying fatty acids uptake by a single cell. Fatty acids, along with glucose and amino acids, are known to be a source of energy for cell proliferation, including cancer cell proliferation. But unlike glucose metabolism, the biological mechanism of fatty acids uptake by a cell was not well understood. The researchers developed a chemical approach to “profiling” the fatty acid uptake into the cells in connection to protein signaling in cancer cells. Using a brain cancer model, they gained new insight into the role of fatty acids in cancer development and created a potential for the new therapy to block the tumor growth. The study was published in Journal of the American Chemical Society.
Scientists at the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute (LTRI), part of Sinai Health, classified all cancers into just two categories, “based on the presence or absence of a protein called the Yes-associated protein, or YAP.” This new understanding can lay the foundation for developing different cancer treatment strategies based on whether the cancer is YAPon or YAPoff type. The study was published in Cancer Cell.
Many MSK staff favor Endnote as their citation management software. Saving an Endnote Library is one of the issues that requires special attention from the Endnote user.
In the desktop version of EndNote, a Library is saved with the extension .enl after its name, and its associated Data folder, with the extension .Data after its name. (NOTE: On Mac computers there is also an option to save your Library as a .enpl file, which combines both the library and the data file into one.)
The Library contains the records and the Data folder is intended for PDFs of the full text associated with the Endnote Library records, as well as anything inserted into the Image field of a reference. Even if no PDFs or images are available, the Data folder will still be there; however a Data folder should never be deleted. Data folders should never be moved or copied without first compressing them into a .enlx file. From there, the compressed zip file can be moved, copied, and shared.
It is important to know that saving an Endnote Library to any network drive does not work well. There is a very high chance of getting a pop-up Damaged Library message at some point if the Library is saved to any drive other than your local drive, i.e. to your computer. On a PC you may consider This PC>Documents for saving an Endnote Library. If you want to save a Library to a network drive for better security you can save a backup copy either as a Compressed Library as explained above or by using the Endnote File>Save a Copy feature. You can save the backup copy to your personal drive or, as a Read Only copy, to a shared drive for your collaborators’ use (but not for their adding/removing the content). As an alternative, instead of using a shared drive for sharing your Endnote Library with others, you can use the Endnote Online companion to your desktop Endnote for collaboration.
Don’t save an Endnote Library to a network drive.
Never delete the .Data folders associated with Endnote Libraries.
Don’t try moving the Library separately from its Data Folder, use the Compressed Library feature instead.
An animal study conducted by an international team of scientists led by researchers from the University of Konstanz in Germany demonstrated that combining a new cancer vaccine with an immune checkpoint inhibitor can dramatically increase the response to therapy rate. The new vaccine is a microparticle-based cancer vaccine, which uses the immunostimulant Riboxxim that has been already approved for application in humans. Combining a cancer vaccine with established drugs creates a foundation for human trials and, eventually, for improving the efficacy of immunotherapies in humans. The study was published in Nature Communications.
Researchers from the Washington University in St. Louis conducted an animal study that revealed the impact of melanoma on the metabolism in tissues outside of the tumor. While most of the previous research on cancer metabolism concentrated on the tumor metabolism itself, this study looked at the relationship of the tumor with metabolism in non-malignant tissues. It demonstrated that cancers affect metabolic processes in healthy tissue elsewhere in the body and that, at least in some instances, these metabolic changes take place to support the tumor. The study authors hope that their findings would lead to targeting the metabolism of healthy tissues as a potential treatment for cancer. The study was published in Cell Metabolism.
A study by the researchers at UVA Cancer Center shed new light on the intercellular interactions of androgen hormones and their receptors. The study offers new insight into the mechanism of androgen-regulated communication within prostate cancer cells. Its findings could be instrumental for perfecting anti-androgen therapies that are at the core of prostate cancer treatment. The study was also published in Nature Communications.
In an animal glioblastoma study, scientists from the Massachusetts General Hospital reprogrammed the host’s immune cells called regulatory T-cells (Tregs) manipulated and hijacked by cancer to assist in its growth and turned them back into cancer killers. It remains to be seen whether this success can be translated into treating humans, and further testing is necessary. This study was also published in Nature Communications.
A recent meta-analysis of 17 observational studies found an association between higher mushroom consumption and decreased cancer risk. While observational studies typically only help establish a correlation between the exposure and the outcomes but not prove causation, this meta-analysis, published in Advances in Nutrition, may boost further research into the protective effects of mushrooms and their potential for cancer prevention.
Researchers from Brazil and the U.S. developed a low-dose four-drug combination to help prevent metastasizing of cancer by simultaneously targeting multiple pathways in the metastasis-promoting network without triggering drug resistance. The authors hope that their findings, challenging current cancer treatment approaches, “could lead to a new cancer treatment strategy where patients first receive low-dose combination drugs that block metastasis and then receive traditional cancer treatments such as radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.” This animal study was published in eLife.